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Climate change, pollution hamper sustainable ocean economy

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Fishing vessels dock at Cửa Việt sea port in central Quảng Trị Province. — VNA/ Photo 

HÀ NỘI — Oceans face very serious risks due to the impact of climate change, sea level rises and marine pollution, requiring countries to make strong commitments and take drastic and effective measures for the sustainable development of the ocean economy, said Deputy Prime Minister Lê Văn Thành.

“This is not only a responsibility for the survival of the population of each country, but also a responsibility for the survival of the marine ecosystem,” he said at an International Conference titled “Sustainable Ocean Economy and Climate Change Adaptation”, held in Hà Nội yesterday.

“In fact, these risks are evolving faster and faster. If we don’t take decisive and strong measures in time to better protect the oceans, many islands, sea areas and the ecosystems on our planet will disappear by 2100 due to sea level rise,” he said. “This is a huge challenge for many countries and peoples.”

“Therefore, sustainable ocean economic development, limiting and adapting to climate change is the imperative of all of us, expressing the common concern of humanity and can only be achieved on the basis of cooperation, global solidarity, respecting each country’s sovereignty, in accordance with the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,” Thành said.

The two-day conference, organised by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Việt Nam, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway and the UN Development Programme (UNDP), focuses on contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to the economy and sustainable development during and after the COVID-19 pandemic; the impacts of COVID-19 on cruise tourism and development strategies for a sustainable industry; and measures to promote recovery after COVID-19.

On the sidelines of the conference, the Việt Nam Administration of Seas and Islands, under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and the UNDP held a ceremony to announce the report “Blue sea economy – Towards a scenario of sustainable development of the marine economy” within the framework of the “Blue Sea Economy” report.

The blue scenario brings outstanding benefits in terms of GDP contribution, Gross National Income (GNI) of marine economic sectors and per capita income for marine workers. The study shows that with the applied blue scenario, the GDP of the blue scenario will be VNĐ296 trillion (US$12.9 billion) higher than the base scenario in 2025 and VNĐ538 trillion ($23 billion) by 2030.

Caitlin Wiesen, UNDP Resident Representative in Việt Nam, said: “It is important to accelerate the marine spatial planning and policies that are needed for Việt Nam’s fishing and aquaculture, and marine renewable energy – particularly offshore wind, biodiversity ecosystem services, and tourism – it is crucial to balance the growth of these closely linked sectors, because the development of one industry can affect other industries.”

Tạ Đình Thi, Deputy Chairman of the National Assembly’s Committee on Science, Technology and Environment and former Director General of Việt Nam’s General Administration of Seas and Islands, said: “The report gives a number of important recommendations to promote blue economic growth in Việt Nam, contributing to the successful implementation of the Strategy for Sustainable Development of Việt Nam’s marine economy to 2030, with a vision to 2045, and the United Nations’ sustainable development goals, including SDG14 on the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas and marine resources.”

The report assesses the contribution of Blue Economy to socio-economic development in Việt Nam. It will help support the implementation of the objectives of the Strategy for Sustainable Development of Việt Nam’s Marine Economy to 2030, with a vision to 2045. In addition, the report can assist Việt Nam in clarifying its socio-economic development goals, sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the rational use and protection of marine resources sustainability, as well as support to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.

Caitlin Wiesen said: “The report includes six main marine economic sectors: fisheries, renewable energy, oil and gas, tourism, transportation, environment and ecology. First, a day-by-day baseline scenario up to 2030 is developed based on the policy and current situation of the sector up to 2030. Next, the blue scenario is developed with the aim of optimising the benefits of the economic, social and environmental issues. Research shows that the blue scenarios outperform the baselines in terms of GDP and per capita income for all industries.

“In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, key marine economic sectors were greatly affected, and small-scale marine workers were most affected. What is needed now is to promote a blue economic recovery in a sustainable and equitable manner. This report makes recommendations on how Việt Nam can develop a blue economy that meets the needs of both the planet and people, where no one is left behind.” —

Source: https://vietnamnews.vn/environment/1190915/climate-change-pollution-hamper-sustainable-ocean-economy.html

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Urgent action needed on primate protection

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An individual grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea), one of the world’s 25 Critically Endangered primates, is found living in a forest of Quảng Nam Province. Photo courtesy of Ái Tâm

Since the government’s Decision 628 – an action plan for the protection of the primate species in Việt Nam–  was issued in 2017, a total of 684 endangered douc langurs, including 86 grey-shanked douc langurs (Pygathrix cinerea), one of the world’s 25 Critically Endangered primates, have been captured by rangers and authorities in 80 illegal hunting and wildlife trafficking cases.

However, a report by ENV, an NGO focused on wildlife protection, showed that only 30 per cent of total poaching violations in Việt Nam were discovered, while 70 per cent were unknown, meaning that the number of the langurs hunted in the forest was unclear.

Biologists, conservationists and experts shared the report at a conference on the conservation activities on endangered primates in the central provinces Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Gia Lai and Kon Tum, and discussed further actions from 2025 to 2030.

They agreed that illegal wildlife hunting, the expansion of coffee and log farms, poor management and planning on the protection of the primates species in the six provinces had been raising threats to the conservation of endangered primates.

 

A log farm raises dangers of erosion after cutting every five years. The forest area in the region has been narrowed, leaving space for profitable timber, coffee, pepper and rubber plantations. Photo Công Thành 

Expert Hà Thăng Long, head of the representative office of the Frankfurt Zoological Society in Việt Nam, said urgent action was needed for more effective protection of the langurs from becoming extinct in the six provinces where from 2,200 to 2,500 individuals are living in the primary forest or strictly protected nature reserves.

“A strategic management and protection plan on the grey-shanked douc langur in nature outside of the protected special-use forest have been built at the six localities, but there is a lack of funds and poor cooperation in sharing information and data on the existence of the langurs among the six local authorities,” Long said.

“The expansion of log and coffee farms in the primary forest and control on illegal wildlife trafficking and hunting in the core zone of nature reserves have sped up series threats to the existence of the grey-shanked douc langur and other primates species.” 

 

An expert checks a forest area of Kon Ka Kinh National Park in Gia Lai Province. The park is home to 800 grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea). Photo courtesy of Nguyễn Thị Tịnh 

Long explained the separation of forest areas due to the construction of roads and hydropower plants would raise more dangers to the langurs.

A report from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development unveiled that the central region lost 34,000ha of forest due to illegal logging and land clearance for coffee, rubber and acacia plantations.

The forested area had dropped by 180,000ha, of which 112,000ha had been destroyed or occupied by the expansion of other crop plantations, and 37,000ha for building hydropower plants and roads between 2010-15, the report detailed.

Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền, a member of the three-monkeys conservation, an NGO, said since the first grey-shanked douc langur individual was rescued in 1995 and then described by German primatologist Tilo Nadler in 1997, 62  Critically Endangered langurs including 26 babies, had been seized from illegal trafficking and hunting cases at the Cúc Phương-based Endangered Primate Rescue Centre.

She said a rescued baby langur meant that its mother or father had been killed.

Hiền said 72 grey-shanked douc langurs were rescued from trafficking and hunting violations in Kon Tum, Quảng Ngãi and Bình Định from 2010 to 2020.

She said more reserves of primate species and a survey on the existence and habitat of the grey-shanked douc langurs in the region were needed.

Gia Lai’s Kon Ka Kinh National Park and Kon Tum’s Kon Plong forest are the two largest homes of Critically Endangered langurs with about 1,300.

Oliver Wearn from Fauna & Flora International (FFI) said a survey from experts and researchers working at FFI in 2015-16 found that Kon Plong forest sheltered from 31 to 35 herds of grey-shanked douc langurs with a population of more than 500.

He said the langurs would be found living in the forest by local communities from 2000, yet a protection plan for the langurs was built at Kon Plong.

He said Critically Endangered langurs had been facing different threats such as forest degradation, habitat separation, log exploitation and road construction.

He said FFI and partners had cooperated with local authorities and forest owners to support technical and sustainable management plans on forests, build surveys on wildlife hunting and trafficking and assess human resources training.

Trần Hữu Vỹ, director of the Centre of Biodiversity Conservation, said residents in Tam Mỹ Tây Commune in Quảng Nam’s Núi Thành District were engaged in the voluntary protection of a herd of grey-shanked douc langurs from 1997.

 

A poster of a red-shanked douc langur is displayed calling for protection of the primates species in Việt Nam. Photo Công Thành 

The province plans to expand the protected area to 100ha from 30ha and link it with the Phú Ninh protected forest to build a nature reserve in the future.

Lê Khắc Quyết from FFI also said it needed to speed up protection plans for the primates species in Việt Nam, and actions must be urgently made to save the endangered primates from extinction.

He said various plans for primates protection in 2025 had been slowly implemented, including building three primates rescue centres, reducing 70 per cent of hunting cases and 70 per cent of rangers being trained in primate protection.

Experts also said that sustainable management and exploitation of forestry products in forests and promoting education among local communities in the reserves would be seen as positive solutions for the protection of endangered primates species in the central region.

Source: https://vietnamnews.vn/environment/1193199/urgent-action-needed-on-primate-protection.html

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Hà Nội needs to combine green growth with urban development

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Bảy Mẫu Lake and Thống Nhất Park in Hai Bà Trưng District, Hà Nội. — VNA/ Photo Thành Đạt

HÀ NỘI — The capital Hà Nội is focusing on urban development towards green and sustainable growth and building a smart and modern city.

According to the Hà Nội Construction Department, the city has paid attention to implementing environmental protection and improvement toward green and sustainable urban development.

The city has also invested in and completed the environment monitoring system in polluted areas and publicised monitoring results in the media to improve the capacity and efficiency of management, forecasting and control of environmental pollution.

Accordingly, the city has put 10 automatic air monitoring stations, one mobile monitoring vehicle, one wastewater and air monitoring station at the Nam Sơn Waste Treatment Complex, and six automatic water surface monitoring stations.

The station data is transmitted to management centres for monitoring and processing.

The work of undergrounding the electric and communication cables, planting trees, and embellishing the street pavement have been done synchronously. Thanks to that, the face of the city is getting greener, cleaner and more beautiful.

Besides, the development of public green outdoor spaces has been gradually meeting the needs of urban residents. From 2015-to 2020, the city has built 382 works of public spaces.

In recent years, the municipal authority has paid special attention to renovating and upgrading the flower gardens and parks system in the central urban area to create typical architectural and landscape spaces of the capital.

The current large parks such as Thủ Lệ and Bách Thảo parks in Ba Đình District, Thống Nhất and Tuổi Trẻ parks in Hai Bà Trưng District have an area of ​​10-50ha each along with natural lakes and flower gardens make the city’s landscape beautiful and improve the microclimate for the areas.

Along with the projected investment by the State budget, many public works such as parks, flower gardens, squares and lakes in new residential areas are invested in and built by the investors.

Five water supply projects have been completed, bringing the total capacity of the water supply of water plants in the city to about 1.5 million cu.m per day. This means 100 per cent of the city’s population can have access to clean water.

Currently, the rate of public green land area in inner cities reaches 7.87 sq.m per person, and the average rate of garbage collection in urban areas is over 97.6 per cent. The city’s waste is treated by landfilling and incineration.

The amount of domestic wastewater collected and treated meets 28.8 per cent of the total generated volume.

Currently, waste and wastewater discharge and treatment of almost 100 per cent of industrial parks and large-scale production facilities are well monitored.

Shortcomings

Although green growth indicators are improving, there are many limitations and shortcomings, according to the Hà Nội Construction Department.

Specifically, the land fund for green areas is still limited.

The city-managed parks and flower gardens in four inner-city districts of Hoàn Kiếm, Ba Đình, Hai Bà Trưng and Đống Đa are public works that were built for a long time and have started degrading while there is lack of land fund for building new parks in densely populated areas such as Cầu Giấy and Hoàng Mai districts.

Another feature is that Hà Nội has many lakes, especially a very large lake – the West Lake, but the lakes often have to receive a large amount of untreated wastewater that make them gradually become shallower over time, accumulating a thick layer of mud of 0.5 – 1m.

Most of the lakes are not embanked, so it is difficult to control illegal encroachment and garbage dumping into the lakes.

According to the Hà Nội Natural Resources and Environment Department, the city’s urban natural water surface area decreased by 11.11ha in 2015 and 192.52ha by 2020.

Thus, from 2015-to 2020, the total urban natural water surface area dropped by 203.63ha.

In general, the water surface and agricultural land areas are gradually shrinking due to the fast urbanisation rate in the city. Many ponds and lakes have been filled to make the land for urban residential and technical infrastructure development, let alone the situation of people illegally encroaching on the water surface areas for doing business.

The city still lacks specific and appropriate mechanisms and policies to encourage all economic sectors and people to participate in growing green trees.

Financial resources for investment in upgrading and building clean water supply infrastructure are limited, and many clean water supply plants have not invested in modern technology.

Regarding the waste treatment, the waste separation at the source has not been implemented synchronously, and the waste collection and recycling are entirely spontaneous.

The construction progress of waste treatment plants is still slow due to difficulty choosing investors and the lack of regulations on waste treatment.

Fund mobilisation for green growth

To reach the targets of urban construction towards green growth for 2021-25, the Construction Department has proposed the city mobilise and arrange resources for the implementation and acceleration of related projects.

The city also needs to make a plan to mobilise resources for applying science and technology to green growth in urban areas, improving urban-rural connectivity, and investing in urban waste and wastewater treatment.

The city also needs to further invest in the construction and renovation of low-income residential areas and building more public spaces.

In addition, it is necessary to complete legal documents and promulgate mechanisms and policies to mobilise domestic and international resources for urban development towards green growth and climate change response. —

 

 

Source: https://vietnamnews.vn/environment/1193560/ha-noi-needs-to-combine-green-growth-with-urban-development.html

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Việt Nam joins efforts to restore ecosystems

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Painted stock (giang sen) birds being taken care of at Đồng Tháp Mười bird sanctuary, in the southern province of Tiền Giang, in the hopes of breeding more of the extremely rare species. VNA/ Photo Minh Trí

 

HÀ NỘI — Việt Nam is joining common efforts to restore ecosystems in response to International Day for Biological Diversity 2022 (May 22) themed “Building a shared future for all life”.

Currently, the risk of biodiversity degradation and ecosystem imbalance remains high, directly affecting food security and driving people towards the risk of poverty, genetic resource depletion and especially climate change. Therefore, the restoration and protection of ecosystems and biodiversity have become a global issue.

Việt Nam currently boasts 173 conservation zones with a total area of more than 2.5 million hectares, including 33 national parks, 66 nature reserves, 18 species and habitat conservation areas, and 56 landscape protection zones. In particular, the country houses nine UNESCO-recognised “World Biosphere Reserves” and three “World Natural Heritage Sites”, nine Ramsar sites and 10 ASEAN Heritage Parks.

Việt Nam has 128 special-use forests, mostly small and scattered ones, that make up the country’s system of protected areas. However, many of them have degraded not only in scale but also in the quality of habitat.

In order to improve the declining quality of the environment, localities across the country have actively responded to the tree-planting movement to protect the ecological environment and limit the negative effects of climate change.

Việt Nam is considered one of the most important areas in the flyway network of migratory and endemic birds, with 63 globally important bird zones and seven endemic bird zones.

By now, the country has recorded more than 900 bird species, of which 99 need conservation attention, 10 are critically endangered, and 17 are endangered.

On January 28, Deputy Prime Minister Lê Văn Thành signed a decision approving the national biodiversity strategy to 2030 with a vision towards 2050.

Under the strategy, the Government targets expanding the area of protected ecosystems to nine per cent of the country’s land area, and protected marine and coastal areas to three to five per cent of the total sea area.

Meanwhile, the forest coverage is expected to be kept at 42-43 per cent and at least 20 per cent of the degraded ecosystem area will be restored.

The Government will give priority to the conservation of wildlife species, particularly endangered, rare and precious fauna and flora species.

With a vision towards 2050, major natural ecosystems, endangered species, and precious and rare genetic resources will be restored and effectively preserved.

To that end, the strategy sets out key tasks such as intensifying biodiversity conservation and restoration, conserving and restoring endangered wild species, stepping up the conservation of genetic resources, and controlling activities that would harm biodiversity.

Most recently on May 17, the Deputy PM signed a decree on a number of urgent tasks and solutions to protect wild and migratory birds in Việt Nam. —

Source: https://vietnamnews.vn/environment/1193561/viet-nam-joins-efforts-to-restore-ecosystems.html

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