Special astronomical phenomena expected to occur in 2022 include the following:
January: Quadrantids meteor shower
Just a few days after entering the new year, astronomy lovers will witness the first phenomenon, which is the Quadrantids meteor shower. This is an above-average meteor shower that usually occurs in January.
This year, the Quadrantids meteor shower will peak on January 3-4. This meteor shower can be observed in areas with favorable weather, few clouds, no rain and no light pollution.
April: Lyrids meteor shower and partial solar eclipse
In April, there will be an average meteor shower called the Lyrids. This meteor shower is caused by debris from comet C/1861 G1 Thatcher that burned up as it enters the atmosphere.
The climax of the Lyrids meteor shower falls on April 22 and 23, 2022. At that time, observers can see about 20 meteors per hour.
Also in April, the world will see the first solar eclipse of the year. This is a partial solar eclipse that will occur on April 30, 2022.
May: Eta Aquarids meteor shower and total lunar eclipse
The Eta Aquarids meteor shower is classified as medium. This meteor shower will appear in early May. The peak of the Eta Aquarids meteor shower will take place on May 6 and 7, 2022.
If you’ve ever heard of Comet Halley, the Eta Aquarids meteor shower is the remnant of debris from this comet as it plunges into the atmosphere.
On May 16, there will be a total lunar eclipse. However, this lunar eclipse will not be observed in Vietnam because the geographical position does not allow it.
The first lunar eclipse of 2022 will occur on April 30.
July: Delta Aquarids meteor shower
Delta Aquarids is the name of the meteor shower that usually occurs in July and August every year. This is an average meteor shower.
The climax of the Delta Quarids meteor shower will occur on the night of July 28 and 29, 2022. To see this meteor shower, observers can turn their gaze towards the constellation Aquarius.
August: Perseids meteor shower
The Perseids are one of the most notable meteor showers of the year. This meteor shower is formed by debris from the comet Swift-Tuttle.
The meteor shower takes place from mid-July to the end of the month with its peak falling on the night of August 12 and early morning on August 13, 2022. If weather conditions are good, the Perseids meteor shower can bring up to 100 meteors at its peak.
October: Partial solar eclipse, Draconids and Orionids meteor showers
There will be up to two notable meteor showers in October, which are the Draconids and Orionids meteor showers.
The Draconids meteor shower is a small meteor shower that occurs on the first days of October, with a peak on October 7, 2022. This meteor shower can be observed almost all night, in the northern sky. However, due to the influence of moonlight, observers will hardly have favorable conditions to witness the Draconids meteor shower.
Unlike the Draconids, the Orionids are one of the most notable meteor showers of the year. The Orionids meteor shower will peak at midnight on October 21 and dawn on October 22, 2022. This year, astronomy lovers will have ideal weather conditions as they will be unaffected by the light from the moon when observing the Orionids meteor shower.
October is also the time of the second and final solar eclipse of 2022. This partial solar eclipse will take place on October 25.
November: Taurids, Leonids meteor showers and total lunar eclipse
In November, there will be another small meteor shower called the Taurids. The peak of this meteor shower will be on the night of November 4 and early morning of November 5, 2021. Since the Taurids is a small meteor shower, observers will only see about 10 meteors per hour.
November also will witness a total lunar eclipse – the most awaited astronomical phenomenon of the year for Vietnamese.
The total lunar eclipse will be on November 8, 2022. If the sky is clear, this phenomenon can be easily observed with the naked eye.
At the end of November, there will be also the Leonids meteor shower. This medium-sized meteor shower will peak on the night of November 17, 2022 with the appearance of about 30 meteors per hour.
December: Geminids meteor shower
The Geminids is considered the largest meteor shower of the year. At its peak on the night of December 13 and early morning, December 14, 2022, the Geminids meteor shower can bring up to 100-120 meteors per hour. Observers may also see the Geminids meteor shower at a more moderate frequency throughout December of 2022.
Urgent action needed on primate protection
Since the government’s Decision 628 – an action plan for the protection of the primate species in Việt Nam– was issued in 2017, a total of 684 endangered douc langurs, including 86 grey-shanked douc langurs (Pygathrix cinerea), one of the world’s 25 Critically Endangered primates, have been captured by rangers and authorities in 80 illegal hunting and wildlife trafficking cases.
However, a report by ENV, an NGO focused on wildlife protection, showed that only 30 per cent of total poaching violations in Việt Nam were discovered, while 70 per cent were unknown, meaning that the number of the langurs hunted in the forest was unclear.
Biologists, conservationists and experts shared the report at a conference on the conservation activities on endangered primates in the central provinces Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Gia Lai and Kon Tum, and discussed further actions from 2025 to 2030.
They agreed that illegal wildlife hunting, the expansion of coffee and log farms, poor management and planning on the protection of the primates species in the six provinces had been raising threats to the conservation of endangered primates.
Expert Hà Thăng Long, head of the representative office of the Frankfurt Zoological Society in Việt Nam, said urgent action was needed for more effective protection of the langurs from becoming extinct in the six provinces where from 2,200 to 2,500 individuals are living in the primary forest or strictly protected nature reserves.
“A strategic management and protection plan on the grey-shanked douc langur in nature outside of the protected special-use forest have been built at the six localities, but there is a lack of funds and poor cooperation in sharing information and data on the existence of the langurs among the six local authorities,” Long said.
“The expansion of log and coffee farms in the primary forest and control on illegal wildlife trafficking and hunting in the core zone of nature reserves have sped up series threats to the existence of the grey-shanked douc langur and other primates species.”
Long explained the separation of forest areas due to the construction of roads and hydropower plants would raise more dangers to the langurs.
A report from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development unveiled that the central region lost 34,000ha of forest due to illegal logging and land clearance for coffee, rubber and acacia plantations.
The forested area had dropped by 180,000ha, of which 112,000ha had been destroyed or occupied by the expansion of other crop plantations, and 37,000ha for building hydropower plants and roads between 2010-15, the report detailed.
Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền, a member of the three-monkeys conservation, an NGO, said since the first grey-shanked douc langur individual was rescued in 1995 and then described by German primatologist Tilo Nadler in 1997, 62 Critically Endangered langurs including 26 babies, had been seized from illegal trafficking and hunting cases at the Cúc Phương-based Endangered Primate Rescue Centre.
She said a rescued baby langur meant that its mother or father had been killed.
Hiền said 72 grey-shanked douc langurs were rescued from trafficking and hunting violations in Kon Tum, Quảng Ngãi and Bình Định from 2010 to 2020.
She said more reserves of primate species and a survey on the existence and habitat of the grey-shanked douc langurs in the region were needed.
Gia Lai’s Kon Ka Kinh National Park and Kon Tum’s Kon Plong forest are the two largest homes of Critically Endangered langurs with about 1,300.
Oliver Wearn from Fauna & Flora International (FFI) said a survey from experts and researchers working at FFI in 2015-16 found that Kon Plong forest sheltered from 31 to 35 herds of grey-shanked douc langurs with a population of more than 500.
He said the langurs would be found living in the forest by local communities from 2000, yet a protection plan for the langurs was built at Kon Plong.
He said Critically Endangered langurs had been facing different threats such as forest degradation, habitat separation, log exploitation and road construction.
He said FFI and partners had cooperated with local authorities and forest owners to support technical and sustainable management plans on forests, build surveys on wildlife hunting and trafficking and assess human resources training.
Trần Hữu Vỹ, director of the Centre of Biodiversity Conservation, said residents in Tam Mỹ Tây Commune in Quảng Nam’s Núi Thành District were engaged in the voluntary protection of a herd of grey-shanked douc langurs from 1997.
The province plans to expand the protected area to 100ha from 30ha and link it with the Phú Ninh protected forest to build a nature reserve in the future.
Lê Khắc Quyết from FFI also said it needed to speed up protection plans for the primates species in Việt Nam, and actions must be urgently made to save the endangered primates from extinction.
He said various plans for primates protection in 2025 had been slowly implemented, including building three primates rescue centres, reducing 70 per cent of hunting cases and 70 per cent of rangers being trained in primate protection.
Experts also said that sustainable management and exploitation of forestry products in forests and promoting education among local communities in the reserves would be seen as positive solutions for the protection of endangered primates species in the central region.
Hà Nội needs to combine green growth with urban development
HÀ NỘI — The capital Hà Nội is focusing on urban development towards green and sustainable growth and building a smart and modern city.
According to the Hà Nội Construction Department, the city has paid attention to implementing environmental protection and improvement toward green and sustainable urban development.
The city has also invested in and completed the environment monitoring system in polluted areas and publicised monitoring results in the media to improve the capacity and efficiency of management, forecasting and control of environmental pollution.
Accordingly, the city has put 10 automatic air monitoring stations, one mobile monitoring vehicle, one wastewater and air monitoring station at the Nam Sơn Waste Treatment Complex, and six automatic water surface monitoring stations.
The station data is transmitted to management centres for monitoring and processing.
The work of undergrounding the electric and communication cables, planting trees, and embellishing the street pavement have been done synchronously. Thanks to that, the face of the city is getting greener, cleaner and more beautiful.
Besides, the development of public green outdoor spaces has been gradually meeting the needs of urban residents. From 2015-to 2020, the city has built 382 works of public spaces.
In recent years, the municipal authority has paid special attention to renovating and upgrading the flower gardens and parks system in the central urban area to create typical architectural and landscape spaces of the capital.
The current large parks such as Thủ Lệ and Bách Thảo parks in Ba Đình District, Thống Nhất and Tuổi Trẻ parks in Hai Bà Trưng District have an area of 10-50ha each along with natural lakes and flower gardens make the city’s landscape beautiful and improve the microclimate for the areas.
Along with the projected investment by the State budget, many public works such as parks, flower gardens, squares and lakes in new residential areas are invested in and built by the investors.
Five water supply projects have been completed, bringing the total capacity of the water supply of water plants in the city to about 1.5 million cu.m per day. This means 100 per cent of the city’s population can have access to clean water.
Currently, the rate of public green land area in inner cities reaches 7.87 sq.m per person, and the average rate of garbage collection in urban areas is over 97.6 per cent. The city’s waste is treated by landfilling and incineration.
The amount of domestic wastewater collected and treated meets 28.8 per cent of the total generated volume.
Currently, waste and wastewater discharge and treatment of almost 100 per cent of industrial parks and large-scale production facilities are well monitored.
Although green growth indicators are improving, there are many limitations and shortcomings, according to the Hà Nội Construction Department.
Specifically, the land fund for green areas is still limited.
The city-managed parks and flower gardens in four inner-city districts of Hoàn Kiếm, Ba Đình, Hai Bà Trưng and Đống Đa are public works that were built for a long time and have started degrading while there is lack of land fund for building new parks in densely populated areas such as Cầu Giấy and Hoàng Mai districts.
Another feature is that Hà Nội has many lakes, especially a very large lake – the West Lake, but the lakes often have to receive a large amount of untreated wastewater that make them gradually become shallower over time, accumulating a thick layer of mud of 0.5 – 1m.
Most of the lakes are not embanked, so it is difficult to control illegal encroachment and garbage dumping into the lakes.
According to the Hà Nội Natural Resources and Environment Department, the city’s urban natural water surface area decreased by 11.11ha in 2015 and 192.52ha by 2020.
Thus, from 2015-to 2020, the total urban natural water surface area dropped by 203.63ha.
In general, the water surface and agricultural land areas are gradually shrinking due to the fast urbanisation rate in the city. Many ponds and lakes have been filled to make the land for urban residential and technical infrastructure development, let alone the situation of people illegally encroaching on the water surface areas for doing business.
The city still lacks specific and appropriate mechanisms and policies to encourage all economic sectors and people to participate in growing green trees.
Financial resources for investment in upgrading and building clean water supply infrastructure are limited, and many clean water supply plants have not invested in modern technology.
Regarding the waste treatment, the waste separation at the source has not been implemented synchronously, and the waste collection and recycling are entirely spontaneous.
The construction progress of waste treatment plants is still slow due to difficulty choosing investors and the lack of regulations on waste treatment.
Fund mobilisation for green growth
To reach the targets of urban construction towards green growth for 2021-25, the Construction Department has proposed the city mobilise and arrange resources for the implementation and acceleration of related projects.
The city also needs to make a plan to mobilise resources for applying science and technology to green growth in urban areas, improving urban-rural connectivity, and investing in urban waste and wastewater treatment.
The city also needs to further invest in the construction and renovation of low-income residential areas and building more public spaces.
In addition, it is necessary to complete legal documents and promulgate mechanisms and policies to mobilise domestic and international resources for urban development towards green growth and climate change response. —
Việt Nam joins efforts to restore ecosystems
HÀ NỘI — Việt Nam is joining common efforts to restore ecosystems in response to International Day for Biological Diversity 2022 (May 22) themed “Building a shared future for all life”.
Currently, the risk of biodiversity degradation and ecosystem imbalance remains high, directly affecting food security and driving people towards the risk of poverty, genetic resource depletion and especially climate change. Therefore, the restoration and protection of ecosystems and biodiversity have become a global issue.
Việt Nam currently boasts 173 conservation zones with a total area of more than 2.5 million hectares, including 33 national parks, 66 nature reserves, 18 species and habitat conservation areas, and 56 landscape protection zones. In particular, the country houses nine UNESCO-recognised “World Biosphere Reserves” and three “World Natural Heritage Sites”, nine Ramsar sites and 10 ASEAN Heritage Parks.
Việt Nam has 128 special-use forests, mostly small and scattered ones, that make up the country’s system of protected areas. However, many of them have degraded not only in scale but also in the quality of habitat.
In order to improve the declining quality of the environment, localities across the country have actively responded to the tree-planting movement to protect the ecological environment and limit the negative effects of climate change.
Việt Nam is considered one of the most important areas in the flyway network of migratory and endemic birds, with 63 globally important bird zones and seven endemic bird zones.
By now, the country has recorded more than 900 bird species, of which 99 need conservation attention, 10 are critically endangered, and 17 are endangered.
On January 28, Deputy Prime Minister Lê Văn Thành signed a decision approving the national biodiversity strategy to 2030 with a vision towards 2050.
Under the strategy, the Government targets expanding the area of protected ecosystems to nine per cent of the country’s land area, and protected marine and coastal areas to three to five per cent of the total sea area.
Meanwhile, the forest coverage is expected to be kept at 42-43 per cent and at least 20 per cent of the degraded ecosystem area will be restored.
The Government will give priority to the conservation of wildlife species, particularly endangered, rare and precious fauna and flora species.
With a vision towards 2050, major natural ecosystems, endangered species, and precious and rare genetic resources will be restored and effectively preserved.
To that end, the strategy sets out key tasks such as intensifying biodiversity conservation and restoration, conserving and restoring endangered wild species, stepping up the conservation of genetic resources, and controlling activities that would harm biodiversity.
Most recently on May 17, the Deputy PM signed a decree on a number of urgent tasks and solutions to protect wild and migratory birds in Việt Nam. —
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